Misleading ASTM C 1028 Friction Test Continues to Wreak Havoc in the USA

Misguided investments of hundreds of millions of dollars in slippery flooring … pain, suffering, and financial losses to accident victims and their families … lawsuits by the thousands … and lack of consumer confidence in ceramic tile and other hard flooring: these are some of the consequences of a poorly-conceived floor “slip-resistance” test — ASTM C 1028, Static Coefficient of Friction, published and sold by the American Society for Testing and Materials. Floor safety experts in most developed countries have considered this test method to be a joke for many years.

Conceived decades ago as a simple way of testing static friction and giving passing grades to many visually attractive but hazardous slippery floors, C 1028 survives despite the availability of far better test methods. No surprise, because lots of people profit from slippery floors: physicians and hospitals, physical therapists, lawyers, and expert witnesses, to name a few. Slip-and-fall accident victims and the disabled are often mystified as to how so many slippery floors (especially wet ones) came to exist and to dramatically change their lives in an instant.

The C 1028 test measures the amount of force needed to overcome friction of a 50-pound stationary object, barely coaxing that object briefly into motion. The problem is, most people aren’t standing still when they slip and fall — they’re moving. This means that what’s relevant is dynamic, not static, friction. Test methods such as ANSI A137.1 (using the BOT-3000E tribometer, and now part of the International Building Code used in most U.S. jurisdictions and a number of other countries), and the pendulum and Tortus instruments endorsed by Ceramic Tile Institute of America (CTIOA), measure dynamic friction and correlate with pedestrian safety. The pendulum is a national standard for pedestrian friction in at least 49 nations and has been endorsed by CTIOA since 2001.

The Access Board of the U.S. Department of Justice issued a document in 1992 that was taken by many as an endorsement of ASTM C 1028. A static coefficient of friction of 0.60 or higher seemed to appear safe for level floors, and 0.80 or higher for pedestrian ramps.

The Access Board long ago denied any support for, or confidence in, static friction. But like a vampire that keeps coming back, C1028 is still used by many architects, designers and building owners as their only criterion to try to prevent them from successfully being sued because of a slippery floor. It doesn’t necessarily work, because all competent U.S. slip-and-fall forensic experts acknowledge that static friction is not adequate to prevent accidents. For more information on ASTM C 1028, please see www.C1028.info.

Safety Direct America conducts laboratory and field coefficient of friction tests using ANSI A137.1, two other relevant ANSI tests, the pendulum, and the Tortus. For those who insist on ASTM C 1028 we conduct that test too — but we do not recommend using it as your sole criterion for slip-and-fall safety.

If you want to prevent slips on your property, contact George Sotter at Safety Direct America, 1-800-988-6721, for our recommendations. We’re consultants to two major cruise ship companies as well as property owners, insurance companies, and attorneys. We wrote the book on slip prevention — see STOP Slip and Fall Accidents! at amazon.com. Have a safe day!

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4 Responses to “Misleading ASTM C 1028 Friction Test Continues to Wreak Havoc in the USA”

  1. Jim Brennan November 25, 2013 at 2:08 am #

    I am trying to select a ceramic tile for the entry foyer and steps of a church. Several hundred people come and go through that door each Sunday morning. How can I know which tile is the best for this application. I believe the specs published for most floor tile is the static ASTM C 1028 numbers. Any suggestions? -Thanks

  2. admin November 25, 2013 at 8:54 pm #

    Jim, you are correct that most tile manufacturers (only in the USA), if they include any slip resistance data with their tiles at all, will include C1028 test results. For areas that may get wet in use, such as an entry foyer and outdoor steps, the absolute worst data to go on is the static C1028 data! Often times, the more slippery a flooring is when wet, the higher the static COF number will be! Here are three suggestions: 1. Send a sample of the tile you’d like to use to Safety Direct America so that we can run a reliable dynamic coefficient of friction test on the tile to see if it’s appropriate for your situation. 2. Contact the manufacturer of whichever tile you’d like to use and ask them if they have any dynamic COF test results for this tile, or 3. Get the tile wet and then rub your finger around it in small 1 inch circles….if it feels slippery to your finger, it will most likely be slippery to most people’s shoes.

  3. Marten Pitts May 30, 2014 at 1:29 pm #

    Although we use the ASM for on the fly testing (client demonstration) here in Australia, all of our documentation ie: quotes, recommendations and even general correspondence carries the disclaimer that any SCOF measurement referenced in this document is only an indication of surface friction and should always be supported with a formalized NATA (National Association of Testing Authorities) Pendulum BPN test.

    The Pendulum remains the only legal test instrument “downunder”.
    It is great to hear from George that the US authorities are getting their act together.


  4. admin May 30, 2014 at 6:28 pm #

    Yes, Marten, the USA is slowly getting on board with RELIABLE slip resistance testing methods…and there has recently been a big advance in that fight. The ASTM C1028 SCOF test method has officially been withdrawn as a test method with no replacement by the ASTM. See it for yourself here: http://www.astm.org/Standards/C1028.htm

    It has taken FAR too long for that to happen, but now that this misleading test method is gone forever, we here at http://SafetyDirectAmerica.com/Floor-Friction-Testing can continue to offer test methods that let property owners, architects, and lawyers know the TRUTH about the slipperiness of their flooring.